Low serum sodium levels should be avoided to reduce risk of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in those with type 2 diabetes, researchers say
Researchers of a study into the link between serum sodium level and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) have recommended that more attention should be paid to avoiding low levels in those with type 2 diabetes.
A retrospective study was carried out on 1,928 Chinese people with type 2 diabetes over the period 2010 and 2018, with researchers analysing the relationship between serum sodium levels and the nerve conduction function.
The team, which included specialists from the Diabetes Research Institute of Fujian Province and The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, reported the following results: “As the serum sodium level increased, the prevalence of DPN had a reverse J-curve distribution with the serum sodium levels (69.6%, 53.7%, 49.6%, 43.9%, and 49.7%; ). Significant differences existed between the serum sodium level and the motor nerve conduction velocity, sensory nerve conduction velocity, part of compound muscle action potential, and sensory nerve action potential of the participants. Compared with hyponatremia, the higher serum sodium level was a relative lower risk factor for DPN.
“Compared with low-normal serum sodium groups, the high-normal serum sodium level was also a risk factor for DPN…This relationship was particularly apparent in male participants, those aged <65 years, those with a duration of diabetes of <10 years, and those with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio <30mg/g.”
They went on to conclude that “low serum sodium levels were independently associated with DPN, even within the normal range of the serum sodium. We should pay more attention to avoid the low serum sodium level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.”